Dating in the dark hard

- Sidney van den Bergh of Canada's National Research Council writes at Cornell's that it is unclear who was responsible for the omission but he reports of the 1931 Monthly Notices "authorized translation of Lemaître's [1927] discovery" that the "mention of the expansion of the Universe was omitted from the English version of both Eqn.

[equation #] 24, and from the English text [and that this] suggests that this exclusion by the translator was deliberate..." However, that shocking and historic omission primarily benefitted Hubble and it was only one year earlier that Hubble himself was insisting that he be given full credit (regardless of the truth) for this discovery.

We do not know the radius of space to-day, but I should estimate that it is not less than ten times the original radius.

[square-bracket comments and emphasis added] single atom] had not yet been proposed.

Lemaître employed blatant attention-getting techniques, like using the name of one of his famous competitors in the opening sentence of his papers.

Then in a later paper, Lemaître himself claims credit for this discovery by directly pointing out: "The title of my note [1927 paper] leaves no doubt about my intentions..." - Hubble and the astronomy establishment have allegedly been "cleared" from the charge of censorship, however, the Royal Astronomical Society invited Lemaître to translate for publication paragraphs 1 to 72 of his 1927 paper, with paragraph 73 containing his discovery of the "Hubble" Law.

So consider this concise, corrected chronology of discovery: - 1912 Vesto Slipher: The radial velocity of the Andromeda Nebula.

- 1915 Slipher: "the average velocity of the spirals is about 25 times the average stellar velocity." - 1917 Willem de Sitter: "The lines in the spectra of very distant stars or nebulae must therefore be systematically displaced towards the red, giving rise to a spurious positive radial velocity" [earliest redshift cosmological hypothesis].

Hubble Reindicted: Post-dating the "discovery" of the expansion and pre-dating the theory not only helps with the canonical big bang storytelling, as an aside, it also helped to wrongly attribute the "Hubble Law".- 1918 Carl Wirtz [translation]: "..system of spiral nebulae is drifting apart by a velocity of 656 km with respect to the momentary location of the solar system as the center." - 1922 Alexander Friedmann: On the curvature of space.[Unlike Einstein's (& Newton's) difficulty in explaining why the universe doesn't gravitationally implode, Friedmann made an interpretation of general relativity that indicated an expanding universe.As is known today about the famed astronomer: - Vesto Slipher's name doesn't appear in Hubble's 1929 paper though most of the radial velocities presented were his.- Hubble wrote to astronomer JH Reynolds asking him to refrain from publishing that which Hubble later published without reference to Reynolds.

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