For his work, Mc Crone was awarded the American Chemical Society's Award in Analytical Chemistry in 2000.
The shroud, however, has many defenders who believe they have demonstrated that the cloth is not a forgery, dates from the time of Jesus, is of miraculous origin, etc. Forensic tests on the red stuff have identified it as red ocher and vermilion tempera paint.
Since the Sudarium is believed to have existed before the 8th century, according to Danin, there is "clear evidence that the shroud originated before the eighth century." The cloth is believed to have been in a chest of relics from at least the time of the Moorish invasion of Spain.
It is said to have been in the chest when it was opened in 1075.
It is claimed that there is type AB blood on the shroud. Blood has not been identified on the shroud directly, but it has been identified on sticky tape that was used to lift fibrils from the shroud. Other tests by Adler and Heller have identified it as blood.* If it is blood, it could be the blood of some 14th century person.
It could be the blood of someone wrapped in the shroud, or the blood of the creator of the shroud, or of anyone who has ever handled the shroud, or of anyone who handled the sticky tape.
Vermilion paint, made from mercuric sulphide, was then splashed onto the image's wrists, feet and body to represent blood." Mc Crone analyzed the shroud and found traces of chemicals that were used in "two common artist's pigments of the 14th century, red ochre and vermilion, with a collagen (gelatin) tempera binder" (Mc Crone 1998).
He makes his complete case that the shroud is a medieval painting in Judgment Day for the Shroud of Turin (March 1999).
In any case, the fact that pollen grains found near the Dead Sea or Jerusalem were on the shroud means little.Even if the pollen grains weren't introduced by some pious fraud, they could have been carried to the shroud by anyone who handled it.In short, the pollen grains could have originated in Jerusalem at any time before or after the appearance of the shroud in Italy. Moreover, that there are two cloths believed to have been wrapped around the dead body of Jesus does not strengthen the claim that the shroud is authentic, but weakens it.A weight of 20th century carbon equaling nearly two times the weight of the Shroud carbon itself would be required to change a 1st century date to the 14th century (see It may interest skeptics to know that many people of faith believe that there is scientific evidence which supports their belief in the shroud's authenticity.Of course, the evidence is limited almost exclusively to pointing out facts that would be true the shroud were authentic.