His victory over Antony and Cleopatra awarded Rome with the richest kingdom along the Mediterranean Sea. The country’s overflowing granaries were now the property of Rome; it became the 'breadbasket' of the empire, the 'jewel of the empire’s crown.' However, according to one historian, Octavian believed that Egypt was now his own private kingdom, he was the heir of the Ptolemaic dynasty, a pharaoh.
Senators were even prohibited from visiting Egypt without permission.
The Romans had been involved periodically in Egyptian politics since the days of Ptolemy VI in the 2nd century BCE.
Caesar remained in Egypt to procure the throne for Cleopatra as Ptolemy’s actions had forced him to side with the queen against her brother.He would restore order to the city, becoming its 'first citizen,' and with the blessing of the Senate, govern without question.Upon his triumphant march into the city, the emperor displayed the spoils of war.The conquering hero adorned in a gold-embroidered toga and flowered tunic rode through the city streets in a chariot drawn by four horses.Although Cleopatra was dead (he had hoped to display and humiliate her in public), an effigy of the late queen, reclining on a couch, was placed on exhibit for all to see.