On 24 June 2002, the Austrian Constitutional Court ruled that Section 209 was unconstitutional. On 9 January 2003, the European Court of Human Rights held, in L & V v Austria, that Section 209 violated Articles 8 and 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Article 152 Sexual intercourse with the person below the age of 16 years, as well as the same offences linked with satisfaction of sexual passion in perverted forms shall be punished by imprisonment up to 3 years.The age of consent in Belarus is 16, as specified by Articles 168 and 169, which read: "Sexual relations, sodomy, lesbian acts or other actions of sexual character of an adult, reached eighteen years of age, with a person who obviously has not reached sixteen years of age, at absence of attributes of the crimes stipulated by articles 166 and 167 present codes, are punished by restriction of freedom of two years to four years or by imprisonment of two years to five years." and "Dissolute actions accomplished by a person, reached eighteen years of age, concerning a person who obviously has not reached sixteen years of age, at absence of attributes of the crimes stipulated by articles 166, 167 and 168 present codes, are punished by arrest of about six months or imprisonment of one year to three years." The age of consent in Belgium is 16, as specified by Article 372 of the Criminal Code (Code pénal/Strafwetboek), which reads: "Any indecent assault committed without violence or threat on the person or with the assistance of the person of a child of either sex, aged less than sixteen, shall be punished by imprisonment (of five years to ten years).Other acts that must be criminalized include: "Engaging in sexual activities with a child (child is defined in Article 3 as "person under the age of 18 years") where: The age of consent is called "the legal age for sexual activities" and must be chosen by states at the age they see fit.(No specific age is recommended.) As of December 2016, the convention has been ratified by 42 states, while another 5 states have signed but not yet ratified the convention.However, most countries in Europe now have binding legal obligations in regard to the sexual abuse of children under 18.The Lanzarote Convention, which came into effect in 2011, obligates the countries that ratify it to criminalize certain acts concerning children under 18, such as the involvement of such children in prostitution and pornography.
In 1993, the Court held that the prohibition of homosexual acts was a violation of Article 8.Sexual activity with children younger than 14 is illegal under Article 207, which prohibits sexual acts with a "child", and a "child" is defined in Article 2(8) as a person under 14.However, Article 209 mentions a "juvenile" who is defined in Article 2(9) as a person under 18, although it is not clear if this article refers only to sexual acts performed in view of a minor under 18 or if it can be used also to punish sexual acts performed with the minor: The age of consent in Bulgaria is 14, as specified by Articles 149 and 151 (1). (1) A person who performs an act for the purpose of arousing or satisfying sexual desire, without copulation, with a person under 14 years of age, shall be punished for lewdness by deprivation of liberty for one to six years.In the European Union (EU 28), there is a directive regarding the sexual abuse of children under 18, known as "Directive 2011/92/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on combating the sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography".Since 2001, the age of consent in Albania is 14, regardless of gender and sexual orientation.