These sociological ideas have continued to be developed and refined through Neo-Marxist Theory (also known as Critical Theory).
as a tool to increase the responsibility of the citizen.
They lose their self-confidence because they cannot be fully self-supporting.
In social work, empowerment offers an approach that allows social workers to increase the capacity for self-help of their clients.
For example, this allows clients not to be seen as passive, helpless 'victims' to be rescued but instead as a self-empowered person fighting abuse/ oppression; a fight, in which the social worker takes the position of a facilitator, instead of the position of a 'rescuer'.
Sociological empowerment often addresses members of groups that social discrimination processes have excluded from decision-making processes through – for example – discrimination based on disability, race, ethnicity, religion, or gender.
Empowerment as a methodology is also associated with feminism.