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The "Peregrinatio Sylviae" (the real name is Etheria) contains a description of the ceremony as it took place in Jerusalem towards the close of the fourth century.
Then a chair is placed for the Bishop in Golgotha behind the Cross...
for the Church, pope, bishop of the diocese, for the different orders in the Church, for the Roman Emperor (now omitted outside the dominions of Austria), for catechumens .... It represents, according to Duchesne (234), "the exact order of the ancient synaxes without a liturgy", i.e. 150 (see Cabrol's "Origines Liturgiques" 137), the celebration of the Eucharist was combined with this purely euchological service to form one solemn act of Christian worship, which came to be called the Mass.
The above order of lessons, chants, and prayers for Good Friday is found in our earliest Roman Ordines, dating from about A. the order of the earliest Christian prayer meetings, at which, however, the liturgy proper, i.e. This kind of meeting for worship was derived from the Jewish Synagogue service, and consisted of lessons, chants, and prayers. It is to be noted that the Mass is still in two parts, the first consisting of lessons, chants, and prayers, and the second being the celebration of the Eucharist (including the Offertory, Canon, and Communion). The deacon then says "Let us kneel" (Flectamus genua); then the people were supposed to pray for a time kneeling in silence, but at present immediately after the invitation to kneel the subdeacon invites them to stand up (Levate).
While the Judica, introit, and the Gloria in Excelsis have been added to this first part of the Mass and the long series of prayers omitted from it, the oldest order of the Synaxis, or meeting without Mass, has been retained in the Good Friday service. The modern collect is the representative of this old solemn form of prayer.
Parasceve, the Latin equivalent of , preparation (i.e.Duchesne (172) is of opinion that the Oremus now said in every Mass before the Offertory, which is not a prayer, remains to show where this old series of prayers was once said in all Masses.The dramatic unveiling and adoration of the Cross, which was introduced into the Latin Liturgy in the seventh or eighth century, had its origin in the Church of Jerusalem.in the Gallican Church, it will suffice to remark that, for 400 years past, it has been anticipated by five or six hours, but retains those peculiar features of mourning which mark the evening offices of the preceding and following day, all three being known as the Tenebrae. The first part consists of three lessons from Sacred Scripture (two chants and a prayer being interposed) which are followed by a long series of prayers for various intentions; the second part includes the ceremony of unveiling and adoring the Cross, accompanied by the chanting of the being finished, the celebrant and ministers, clothed in black vestments, come to the altar and prostrate themselves for a short time in prayer.In the meantime, the acolytes spread a single cloth on the denuded altar. When the celebrant and ministers ascend the altar, a lector takes his place on the epistle side, and reads a lesson from Osee 6. Next comes a prayer sung by the celebrant, which is followed by another lesson from Exodus 12, chanted by the subdeacon.