College, Haileybury then the only training-ground for the Indian Civil Service probationers. Men and gods were merely manifestations of that Spirit. These four phases may be called (i) Ritualistic, (2) Philosophical, (3) Mythological, (4) Nomistic. This phase of the Brahmanical system has for its special bible the s^acred^rxali^s^caned^ Brahmanas, added to the J^intn^or_Jjj^^ (for example, the Aitareya, Satapatha, Tandya, and Gopatha Brahmanas added to the Rig, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva Vedas resgect-__ ,-lvely).In 1875 I published the first edition of Indian Wis dom 1 ; and it may be well to point out that, as the present volume deals with the principal phases of the Hindu religion, so the object of the former work was to o-ive a trustworthy general idea of the character and contents of the sacred literature on which that religion is founded. They consist of a series of rambling prose compo sitions, the oldest of which may have been written seven eight centuries B. Their relationship to the Vedic hymns resembles in some respects that of the book of Leviticus to the Psalms in our own sacred Scriptures.My travels embraced Bombay, Allahabad, Calcutta, Darjiling, Parasnath, Mirzapore, Patna, Gaya, Benares, Agra, Bulandshahr, Delhi, Jeypore (Jaypur), Ajmere, Abu, Ahmedabad, and Baroda, but my object was not so much to verify what I had already written, as to collect information for the part of my work still unfinished. The following free translation of a passage of the Sata- patha-brahmana is from Indian Wisdom, p.In all the places I have named I met intelligent Pandits, many of whom discussed questions with me in Sanskrit. Three principal stages or phases of the Hindu religion. 34 : The gods lived constantly in dread of Death The mighty Ender so with toilsome rites They worshipped and repeated sacrifices Till they became immortal.VII had lived for years quite unconsciously within a few hundred yards of a celebrated shrine, endeared to the Hindus by the religious memories of centuries. 23 sixteen different classes of priests, every one of whom received adequate gifts, was the great object of every pious Hindu s highest ambition.
We cannot, of course, sympathize with what is false in the several creeds of Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis, and Muslims. Every man throughout his whole life rested his whole hopes on con tinually offering oblations of "some kind to the gods in fire, and "the burning of Tiis body at Tdeath was held to_be the lf in fire (antya ishti or antyeshti).Of course ignorance is associated with indifference. A still more am bitious idea was that of employing sacrifice as an instrument for the attainment of superhuman powers and even exaltation. All this involved the elaboration of a complicated ritual, and the organization of a regularly constituted hierarchy.I stayed in India with an eminent Indian civilian who Preface to the First Edition. To institute a sacrificial rite (such as the Asvamedha, Jyoti- shtoma, Agnishtoma, Aptoryama, Vajapeya, strengthening drink ), and to secure its being carefully conducted with the proper repetition and intonation of innumerable hymns and texts from the Veda, and the accurate observance of every detail of an intricate ritual by a full complement of perhaps Ritualistic Brahmanism.We are none of us as yet quite able to answer the question : What are Brah- manisrn^and Hinduism^and what relation do tliey "tear to each_other JL We have none of us yet suf ficiently studied them under all their Protean aspects, in their own *vast sacred literature, stretching over a period of more than three thousand years. It could Jhgp^ejjl^^ It wa TTEe" great preservative from all evil, the great^mairitainer of the energies of the Universe, the great source of all benefits.We under-estimate their comprehensiveness, their super- subtlety, their recuperative hydra-like vitality ; and we are too much given to include the whole system under sweeping expressions such as " heathenism" or "idol atry," as if every idea it contains was to be eradicated root and branch. It could procure a whole line of sons and grandsons l , or secure the attainment of the highest heaven, or even raise the sacri- ficer to the level of the highest deities.