Noyes dating endometrium

Implantation failure is thought to occur as a consequence of impairment of embryo developmental potential and/or impairment of uterine receptivity and the embryo–uterine dialogue.Therefore a better comprehension of implantation, and the relative importance of the factors involved, is warranted.Finally, the blastocyst penetrates the epithelial layer and invades the stroma (invasion).Successful implantation requires the appropriately timed arrival of a viable blastocyst into a receptive endometrium.This interaction involves the embryo, with its inherent molecular programme of cell growth and differentiation, and the temporal differentiation of endometrial cells to attain uterine receptivity.Implantation itself is governed by an array of endocrine, paracrine and autocrine modulators, of embryonic and maternal origin.On the basis of studies in rhesus monkeys, it is thought that human implantation involves a number of different stages ( Enders , 1986 ).Prior to implantation, the blastocyst shows evidence of polarity, assuming a particular orientation as it approaches the endometrium.

The blastocyst then comes into contact with the epithelial layer and adheres to the endometrial surface (adhesion).The aim of this review is to outline the current understanding of implantation in humans and to describe and critique the tools currently available for the study of the human preimplantation embryo, the receptivity of the endometrium and the embryo–uterine dialogue.In addition, this review will identify key areas in implantation research and methodology where efforts need to be focused in the future.There is now a movement towards more sophisticated, high-throughput technologies, such as DNA chips and proteomic arrays, capable of rapidly monitoring small changes in the levels of thousands of different genes or proteins, respectively.This not only enables the sampling of many more potential molecular candidates, but also the identification of characteristic molecular profiles (e.g.

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