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Some settled there and were favorably received by the rulers of this underpopulated principality.At the beginning of the 16th century there were Jewish communities in several Moldavian towns, such as Jassy ( Iasi), Botosani, Suceava, and Siret.The Jews may have come as merchants or in other capacities with the Roman legions that garrisoned the country from 101 C. and early missionary activity in Dacia may have been due to the existence of Jewish groups there.Today, Romania boasts a Jewish population of 9,500.In the codes of 17, the Jews are scarcely mentioned.On the other hand, the first books of anti-Jewish incitement of a religious character appeared around this time: the Golden Order (Jassy, 1771) and A Challenge to Jews (Jassy, 1803).More intensive waves of Jewish immigration resulted from the Chmielnicki massacres (1648–49).

Many of the Jews were craftsmen, such as furriers, tailors, boot makers, tinsmiths, and watchmakers.The first real major wave of Jewish immigrants spread through Walachia (a Romanian principality founded around 1290) after they had been expelled from Hungary in 1367.In the 16th century some refugees from the Spanish expulsion came to Walachia from the Balkan Peninsula.While still in Poland they were told about the advantages offered (exemption from taxes, ground for prayer houses, ritual baths, and cemeteries).They were invited either to reestablish war-ravaged towns (1761, Suceava) or to enlarge others (1796, Focsani).

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